Krapar and Kini

Translation
Թարգմանութիւն

Translation, in a broad sense of the word, is either the process of expressing words of one language in another language, or the end result of that process. The process of translation is performed by two different methods—translating and rendering.

Translate comes from the Latin translat-, “carried across” (past participle of transferre). When you translate, you take a word in someone else’s language, pick it up and carry it across the border back into your language. When it gets there, it’s still the same word, but now it’s in your language. Words are translated from the source language to the target language by way of loan words or calques (and some words are translated by way of both).

Loan Word. A foreign word is translated as a loan word by transferring it almost letter-by-letter (or phonetic sound-by sound) into the home language, with the same meaning. Translation by loan word is also referred to as borrowing or transliteration.

Calque. A foreign word is translated as a calque by taking the component parts of the word, and constructing a new word in the home-language using equivalent component parts.

Render comes from the Latin redare, “give back”. When you render, you take words (from one single word up to a multi-volume tome) in someone else’s language, put them into a pot, boil them down into another substance that has the essence of the original words, and then bring the new product back home into your language. By analogy, a whaler in the 19th century takes foreign whale blubber (a complex organic fat), and renders it in pots on his ship into domestic whale oil (still a complex organic fat, but in a different form), and then returns to his home port with the new product. Everyone’s rendering pot is different, because each person has different personal experiences (educational, cultural, etc.) that went into building and maintaining the pot. Everyone’s rendering process is different, because each person has different reasons for manufacturing the product, and different intended buyers of the product (for example, the reader of an academic journal is quite different than the reader of a children’s book). Because of this, no two renderings are exactly the same, and in some instances, they are significantly different. The many different Bible versions are different renderings of a source text.

Examples of Loan Words
Source Word Loan Word
χριστός1 anointed one Քրիստոս Christ (anointed one)
christós Kristos
כְּרוּבִים cherubim χερουβείμ cherubim
kəruvím cheroubeím
χερουβείμ cherubim քերովբէք cherubim
cheroubeím kerovpēk‘
שְׂרָפִים seraphim σεραφείμ seraphim
sərafím serafeím
σεραφείμ seraphim սերովբէք seraphim
serafeím serovpēk‘
ἐκκλησία congregation, church եկեղեցի congregation, church
ekklēsía ekeghets‘i
καθολικός universal կաթողիկոս catholicos (universal)
katholikós katoghikos
ἐπίσκοπος bishop եպիսկոպոս bishop
epískopos episkopos
Examples of Calques
Source Word Calque
ἐπίσκοπος overseer (bishop) վերադիտող overseer (bishop)
ἐπί over, above վեր over, above
σκοπός observer դիտող observer
θεολόγος theologian աստուածաբան theologian
θεος God աստուած God
λόγος word բան word
ὀρθόδοξος orthodox ուղղափառ orthodox
ὀρθός straight, correct ուղիղ straight, correct
δόξα glory փառք glory

Word Rendering Example

Two different English renderings of the same word, քաղցրութիւն (an abstract noun derived from the word քաղցր, “sweet”), in the same line:

որպէս Որդւովդ Աստուծոյ՝ Հօրդ քաղցրութիւն,2
“through the Son of God. Also spread the sweetness of the Father,3
“as the loving kindness of the Father was proclaimed through the Son,4

Word Rendering Example

Three different words in the Bad­arak that are rendered “Armenians” in English:5

1. Քահանայն. Եւս առաւել զեպի­սկոպոս­ապետն մեր եւ զպատ­ուա­կան Հայր­ապետն Ամեն­այն Հայ­ոց զՏէր Գար­եգին սրբազ­նագոյն Կաթո­ղիկոսն…
The Priest: And more specially grant us to have our chief bishop and venerable Patriarch of All Armenians, His Holiness the Catholicos Lord Karekin…
Հայոց  =  of Hay people  =  of Armenians
Հայ + -ոց = Հայոց
Hay person gen. pl. of Hay people
 
2. Սարկաւագն. … հովուաց եւ հովու­ապետ­ացն հայա­ստան­եայց, եղիցի յիշ­ատակ ի սուրբ պատ­ար­ագս, աղաչ­եմք:
The Deacon: … and all the pastors and chief-pastors of the Armenians be remembered in this holy sacrifice, we beseech the Lord.
Հայաստանեայց  =  of ones belonging to the Hay-person-place  =  of Armenians
Հայ + -ա- + -ստան = Հայաստան
Hay person place of Hay-person-place
Հայաստան + -եայ + = Հայաստանեայց
Hay-person-place belonging to a group gen. pl. of ones belonging to the Hay-person-place
 
3. Դպիրքն. Բարե­խօսու­թեամբ վերին քո զօր­ացդ, միշտ ան­շարժ պահեա՛ զաթոռ Հայկ­ազն­եայս:
The Choir: Through the intercession of your supernal hosts maintain ever unshaken the throne of Armenians.
Հայկազնեայս  =  ones belonging to the Haig-people-nation  =  Armenians
Հայկ + -ազն = Հայկազն
Haig people or nation Haig-people-nation
Հայկազն + -եայ + = Հայկազնեայս
Haig-people-nation belonging to a group acc. pl. ones belonging to the Haig-people-nation

Example of Different Bible Renderings

King James Version
Psalm 23:1-4
1

A Psalm of David.

The Lord6 is7 my shepherd; I shall not want.

2

He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.

3

He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.

4

Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me.

New English Translation of the Septuagint
Psalm 22:1-4
1

A Psalm. Pertaining to Dauid.

The Lord8 shepherds me, and I shall lack nothing.

2

In a verdant place, there he made me encamp;

by water of rest he reared me;

3

my soul he restored.

He led me into paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.

4

For even if I walk in the midst of death’s shadow,

I will not fear evil, because you are with me;

your rod and your staff—they comforted me.

The Passion Translation
Psalm 23:1-4
1

Yahweh is my best friend and my shepherd.

I always have more than enough.

2

He offers a resting place for me in his luxurious love.

His tracks take me to an oasis of peace near the quiet brook of bliss.

3

That’s where he restores and revives my life.

He opens before me the right path and leads me along in his footsteps of righteousness

so that I can bring honor to his name.

4

Even when your path takes me through the valley of deepest darkness,

fear will never conquer me, for you already have!

Your authority is my strength and my peace.

The comfort of your love takes away my fear.

I’ll never be lonely, for you are near.


1 χριστός (christos) is a calque translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (mashiah), “messiah”, lit. “anointed one”.

2 From St. Gregory of Narek’s Prayer to the Holy Spirit, in Prayer 33 of his Book of Lamentations (Մատ­եան ողբեր­գութ­եան), which the Bishop inaudibly prays during the Preparation segment of the Badarak.

3 Thomas Samuelian, Speaking with God from the Depths of the Heart. The Armenian Prayer Book of St. Gregory of Narek, Yerevan: Vem Press, 2001.

4 Daniel Findikyan, Ed., The Divine Liturgy of the Armenian Church, with Modern Armenian and English Translations, Transliteration, Musical Notation, Introduction and Notes, New York: St. Vartan Press, 1999.

5 Ibid.

6 The King James Version distinguishes the word “Lord” in three ways. In all capital letters, Lord represents the Tetragrammaton (four-letter) word יְהֹוָה (YHWH, expressed as Yahweh), the name of the Hebrew God. In all lower-case letters, lord represents אֲדוֹנִי (adonai), a title of respect. When the first letter is capitalized, Lord represents Adonai as the honorific used when addressing the Lord/God (Yahweh/Elohim). All three forms are used in Isa. 19:4 of the KJV: “And the Egyptians will I give over into the hand of a cruel lord; and a fierce king shall rule over them, saith the Lord, the Lord of hosts.” See also Note 8 below.

7 The KJV uses italics to distinguish words that do not have a directly-corresponding word in the source texts, but were added to the translation for clarity.

8 The New English Translation of the Septuagint only makes a distinction between Yahweh and Adonai when it could be shown that the Greek translator made a comparable distinction; otherwise, the Greek κύριος (kyrios) is typically represented by “lord”. Cf. Isa. 19:4 of the NETS: “and I will deliver Egypt into the hands of men, cruel lords, and cruel kings will lord it over them. This is what the Lord Sabaoth says.” See also Note 6 above.